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Lesson Credits

Content References

  • Key Idea 4: Natural Isotopic Variability, Page 4: Coplen, Tyler B.;Holden, Norman E. Atomic Weights: No Longer Constants of Nature. Chemistry International. March-April 2011, 33. 02/2_coplen.html (accessed July 23, 2012).

Definitions: Adapted from:

  • IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  • IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. Doi:10.1351/goldbook .
  • Mahaffy, P. G.; Bucat, B.; Tasker, R.; Kotz, J. C.; Treichel, P. M.; Weaver, G. C.; McMurry, J. Chemistry: Human Activity, Chemical Reactivity, 1st Canadian Edition; Nelson, 2011.

Except for:

Image Credits: Sources for images are as follows:


  • Ice core extraction: From the British Antarctic Survey.
  • Heavy and light ice: By Theo Keeler.

Key Idea 1: Atomic Structure

  • Windmills: By ntitanium -
  • Medicine: By Leonardini -
  • Clouds: By fsstudio -

Key Idea 2: Defining Isotopes

  • Clouds: By saavem -
  • Mass Spectrometer: Mass Spectrometer schematic diagram accessed 22 July 2014 at _Spectrometer_Schematic.svg

Key Idea 3: Percent Abundance of Isotopes and Atomic Weight

  • Bamboo with water droplets: By Skippy3E -
  • Heavy and light ice: By Theo Keeler.

Key Idea 4: Natural Isotopic Variability

  • Ötzi: Copyright of South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology -

Key Idea 5: Isotopes and Climate

  • Ice core montage: Copyright of Reto Stockli, NASA GSFC; accessed at Paleoclimatology_IceCores/.
  • Forest: By Agrid -
  • Industry: By CMSeter -
  • Iceberg: By lyeager -

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